Chemistry

📏 SI Prefixes & Metric System Conversion 📏

  • This study guide outlines the 20 SI (International System of Units) prefixes used to form decimal multiples and submultiples.

  • This video presents a mnemonic device to remember the 12 International System of Units (SI) prefixes: Tera, Giga, Mega, kilo, hecto, deca, deci, centi, mili, micro (μ), nano and pico: The Great Man king henry’s daughter Betsy drinks cold milk μntil nine pm.

  • This video explains how to convert between metric units of measure using a visual aid: "The Metric Staircase."

  • This Biology lesson, written by Ilysse Baum shows how the "Metric Staircase" can also be applied to the conversion of ocular micrometers.

  • This video provides a comprehensive overview of how to convert metric quantities using the base unit, liter, and the SI prefixes milli-, centi-, deci-, deca-, hecto-, and kilo-.

🌡 Temperature Scales & Density 🌡

  • This video compares the Celsius and Fahrenheit temperature scales, and explains that the boiling point of water is 212° Fahrenheit and 100° Celsius, and the freezing point of water is 32° Fahrenheit and 0° Celsius.

  • This video explains how to convert temperatures in degrees Fahrenheit to temperatures in degrees Celsius.

  • This reference guide shows how to convert Celsius and Fahrenheit temperatures.

  • This video outlines the following conversions: Fahrenheit to Celsius and vice versa, and Celsius to Kelvin and vice versa. It also covers the temperature at which Celsius equals Fahrenheit, and absolute zero.

  • This video compares the boiling and freezing points on the Fahrenheit, Celsius, and Kelvin scales. It also describes how to convert between these temperature scales.

  • This video defines boiling point elevation as the raising of a solvent's boiling point due to the addition of a solute, and freezing point depression as the lowering of a solvent's freezing point due to the addition of a solute. As the boiling point of a solvent increases, its freezing point decreases.

  • This video provides examples and practice problems on boiling point elevation and freezing point depression. In addition, this video also shows how to determine which solution will have the highest boiling point.

  • This study guide highlights the difference between mass and weight, and provides fields to input mass and weight on various planets.

  • This video explains how temperature is different than heat, and uses an example to explain why substances with the same temperature can feel hotter or cooler than each other.

  • This study guide explores the difference between temperature and heat, and defines the heat equation.

  • This video explains the difference between intensive properties and extensive properties. Intensive properties do not depend on the quantity of matter (i.e. density). Extensive properties do depend on sample size (i.e. volume, mass, etc.).

  • This study guide defines and provides examples of intensive and extensive properties.

  • This video provides an explanation of the definition of density (density = mass/volume) using a visual aid: a density triangle.

  • This video provides an explanation of what density is, and includes three examples for calculating density, mass, and volume.

  • This study guide provides an introduction to density, determining density, calculating specific gravity, and the uses of density in the geosciences.

🔸 Subatomic Particles 🔸

  • This video defines the charges of the three subatomic particles: proton (p): +1, neutron (n): 0, and electron (e-): -1. It also explains that protons and neutrons are heavier than electrons and reside in the nucleus, at the center of the atom. Electrons are relatively lightweight and exist in a cloud orbiting the nucleus.

  • This study guide defines the three main subatomic particles: protons, electrons, and neutrons. It also describes the locations, charges, and masses of protons, neutrons, and electrons, and describes how to determine the number of protons and electrons in an atom.

  • This video shows how to read the periodic table of elements. It defines the atomic number as the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. It defines atomic mass as the mass of an atom of a chemical element expressed in atomic mass units. It is approximately equivalent to the number of protons and neutrons in the atom (the mass number) or to the average number allowing for the relative abundances of different isotopes.

  • This video explains how to calculate the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in an atom or in an ion. It also explains the difference between atomic number, mass number, and the average atomic mass for the isotopes of the elements in the periodic table.

  • This video explains the process of naming covalent molecular compounds with prefixes.

  • This video illustrates the difference between structural and bond line formulas, and provides visualizations of both formulae.

  • This video teaches how to draw bond line structures, representations of molecular structure in which covalent bonds are represented with one line for each level of bond order.

  • This study guide classifies the following separation techniques as follows: Filtration/Dialysis for Size: Exclusion Chromatography for Particle Size, Centrifugation for Mass or Density, Masking for Complex Formation, Distillation/Sublimation/Recrystallization for Change in Physical State, Precipitation/Electrodeposition/Volatilization for Change in Chemical State, and Extraction/Chromatography for Partitioning Between Phases.

✰ Avogadro's Number, The Mole & Molar Mass ✰

  • This video explains the concept of moles and how it relates to mass in grams by the molar mass of a compound. It also explains how moles relate to atoms and molecules through Avogadro's number.

  • This video conceptualizes the definition of a mole of a substance as being equal to 6.022 × 10²³ units of that substance (such as atoms, molecules, or ions). The number 6.022 × 10²³ is known as Avogadro's number.

  • This study guide explains the concept of a mole, and provides examples of calculating the molar mass of: Al(NO3)3, Ba(SCN)2, CO, N2, Ar, HCl, CaSO412H2O, Ca(C2H3O2)2, (HOOCCH2)2NCH2CH2N(CH2COOH)2, and nitrogen.

  • This video focuses on Avogadro's number and how it is used to convert moles to atoms. This video also explains how to calculate the molar mass of a compound, and how to convert from grams to moles.

  • This video explains how to calculate the molar mass of a compound, and provides various examples to find the molar mass of chemical compounds.

  • This video explains how to calculate the molar mass of a compound, which is helpful especially in mole to gram conversions, in three easy steps.

☍ Percent Composition ☍

  • This video explains how to find the composition by mass of each element in a compound. The molar mass of the entire compound must be found in order to calculate the mass percent of each element in the compound.

  • This video uses an example to calculate the mass percent of an element in a compound by dividing the mass of the element in 1 mole of the compound by the compound's molar mass and multiply the result by 100.

  • This video shows how to calculate the mass percent of an element in a compound by dividing the mass of the element in 1 mole of the compound by the compound's molar mass and multiply the result by 100. The example provided shows how to calculate the mass percentages of the elements Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H), and Oxygen (O) in Glucose (C6H12O6) after Calculating the Molecular Mass of Glucose.

  • This comprehensive study guide provides explanations and examples of the following concepts: percent composition, determining percent composition from formula mass, determining empirical formulas, and deriving empirical formulas from percent composition.

  • This study guide explains how to calculate the mass ratio of sulfuric acid using the following four steps: (1) Determine the molar mass of each element present, (2) Determine the mass of each individual element present, (3) Determine the molar mass of the compound, and (4) Divide the mass of each element present by the molar mass.

  • This video shows how to calculate the theoretical and percent yield. The theoretical yield is the maximum amount of product that can be produced in a reaction. The percent yield is equal to the actual yield divided by the theoretical yield times 100%.

  • This video explains how to calculate the percent yield, actual yield, and theoretical yield of a product produced in a chemical reaction given the mass in grams of the reactants. It also includes stoichiometry practice problems with limiting reagents and excess reactants.

✦ Stoichiometry & Conversion Factors ✦

  • This video provides an overview to stoichiometry, the branch of chemistry which expresses the quantitative relationship between reactants and products in a chemical equation.

  • This study guide covers various topics in stoichometry including: stoichiometric coefficients, variation in stoichiometric equations, density, percent mass, molarity, empirical formulas, and molecular formulas.

  • This video explains mole to mole conversions, grams to grams and mole to gram dimensional analysis problems. It also contains mole ratio practice problems. The molar ratio can be found using the coefficients of the balanced chemical equation. The conversion from moles to grams and grams to moles can be accomplished using the molar mass of the substance.

  • This video focuses on converting units of measurement with conversion factors. It explains how to convert units of length, time, capacity, volume, area, mass, speed/velocity, and density.

🔹 Scientific Notation & Significant Figures🔹

  • This video discusses how scientific notation is used to express numbers that are too large or too small to be compactly written in decimal form. It also explains how to express Avogadro's number in scientific notation.

  • This video provides various numerical examples to express both large and small quantities in scientific notation.

  • This study guide outlines how to convert quantities written in scientific notation to standard form, and from standard form to scientific notation. It also provides examples of calculations and approximations with scientific notation, and explains significant figures.

  • This video explains the seven basic units in the SI system: the meter (m), the kilogram (kg), the second (s), the kelvin (K), the ampere (A), the mole (mol), and the candela (cd). It also explains how to determine using the following five rules: (1) All non-zero numbers are significant, (2) Zeros between two non-zero digits are significant, (3) Leading zeros are not significant, (4) Trailing zeros to the right of the decimal are significant, (5) Trailing zeros in a whole number with the decimal shown are significant.

⚛︎ Chemical Formulas & Balancing Chemical Equations ⚛︎

  • This video explains how to balance a chemical reaction: the same number of atoms of each element must be on both sides of the equation.

  • This video tutorial defines five simple steps to use when balancing chemical equations.

  • This video provides tips on how to balance more complicated chemical reactions. It also provides an example of balancing the combustion reaction of ethylene, C₂H₄.

  • This video uses different colors to relate a balanced chemical equation to the structural formulas of the reactants and products.

  • This video highlights the differences between empirical, molecular, and structural chemical formulas. Empirical formulas show the simplest whole-number ratio of atoms in a compound. Molecular formulas show the number of each type of atom in a molecule. Structural formulas show the arrangement of the molecule.

  • This video defines oxidation and reduction using an example: NaCl. Oxidation is the gain of oxygen. Reduction is the loss of oxygen.

  • These videos explain how to balance redox reactions under acidic conditions. They also help to identify which half reaction is oxidation and reduction.

  • These videos explain how to balance redox reactions in basic solutions using the following steps: (1) separate the net reaction into two separate half reactions (oxidation and reduction), (2) balance the atoms first under acidic conditions using H+ and H2O, and (3) balance the charges by adding electrons to the side of the chemical equation with the highest oxidation state. Once the electrons in both half-reactions are equal, the two reactions may be combined together to form the net reaction. To neutralize the acid, OH- ions are added to both sides of the equation.