Subatomic Particles

  • This video defines the charges of the three subatomic particles: proton (p): +1, neutron (n): 0, and electron (e-): -1. It also explains that protons and neutrons are heavier than electrons and reside in the nucleus, at the center of the atom. Electrons are relatively lightweight and exist in a cloud orbiting the nucleus.

  • This study guide defines the three main subatomic particles: protons, electrons, and neutrons. It also describes the locations, charges, and masses of protons, neutrons, and electrons, and describes how to determine the number of protons and electrons in an atom.

  • This video shows how to read the periodic table of elements. It defines the atomic number as the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. It defines atomic mass as the mass of an atom of a chemical element expressed in atomic mass units. It is approximately equivalent to the number of protons and neutrons in the atom (the mass number) or to the average number allowing for the relative abundances of different isotopes.

  • This video explains how to calculate the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in an atom or in an ion. It also explains the difference between atomic number, mass number, and the average atomic mass for the isotopes of the elements in the periodic table.

  • This video explains the process of naming covalent molecular compounds with prefixes.

  • This video explains how to calculate the molar mass of a compound, and provides various examples to find the molar mass of chemical compounds.

  • This video illustrates the difference between structural and bond line formulas, and provides visualizations of both formulae.

  • This video teaches how to draw bond line structures, representations of molecular structure in which covalent bonds are represented with one line for each level of bond order.

  • This study guide classifies the following separation techniques as follows: Filtration/Dialysis for Size: Exclusion Chromatography for Particle Size, Centrifugation for Mass or Density, Masking for Complex Formation, Distillation/Sublimation/Recrystallization for Change in Physical State, Precipitation/Electrodeposition/Volatilization for Change in Chemical State, and Extraction/Chromatography for Partitioning Between Phases.